Note

If you’re interested in Photoshop, you’ll want to check out all of the classes in the Photoshop Essentials online video series from Lynda.com, a library of free online video courses. You can find these classes at:

# Getting the Most Out of the Help Menu

Photoshop can be intimidating, and it’s difficult to work on a large image at once in the program’s giant interface. Fortunately, you can find a large number of tips and tricks that work in Photoshop’s Help menu that will help you along the way. You can find a number of commands on most menus, but most of them can be controlled with the keyboard.

## Cmd-Z

The more you know about Photoshop, the easier it is to get around. The Cmd-Z (Z for Undo, or z for undo) key is your ticket to instant action. If you make a mistake that you don’t want to keep, use Cmd-Z. This command prompts Photoshop to enter Undo mode. In this mode, you can back up your work quickly and easily.

Before you can use Cmd-Z, though, you have to do two things: save your work and close a window. (You can also choose File→Save and then Ctrl-N to save only the current window, or File→Close Window to close only that window.)

Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) was probably the first organization to create a Photoshop-like program on the Macintosh and Windows platform.

The beginning

Image editors for computers were not particularly known or used in the 1980s, when Adobe was founded. Instead, professional photographers and graphic artists used large-scale film and printed pictures.

Just like Photoshop today, Adobe Photoshop of the 1980s was a desktop tool. It was considered a utility to prepare pictures for printing and enhancing them.

Arguably, the first commercial software was created by Scott Fahlman and Ted Myklebust on their own. The program, named PixelPainter, was first used by government agencies to generate foreign-language posters.

In 1987, Adobe bought the company and changed the name to Adobe Photoshop. Originally, the program consisted of two components: one for the Macintosh operating system (the MacPaint component, that the company licensed for a commercial price and changed its name to Adobe Photoshop) and another for the Windows operating system.

The Macintosh version of Photoshop had a unique palette, as well as its own icon and window frame.

Macintosh version of Photoshop. Source: Hackertown

Windows Photoshop was bundled as an extra software with a licensed copy of the MS-DOS operating system (either Microsoft Windows 1.0 or Windows 3.1).

The first version of Photoshop was called Photoshop Public Edition and launched for the public in 1992, five years after MacPaint. This was a “tool” with limited features, allowing users to enhance photographs and create graphics.

The release of Photoshop Studio

In 1997, Adobe decided to expand and diversify its product portfolio. Accordingly, the company launched Photoshop Studio, a freeware version of Photoshop.

Its first release was in the end of 1998, with a list of features similar to Photoshop Public Edition. Photoshop Studio was launched as a collection of modules with a visual interface. The first module was called Adobe Photoshop Elements, which was similar to the Photoshop Studio 3.0.

First major release of Elements

Adobe released Photoshop Elements 5.0 in 2002. This was the first major release of this application. It included a new user interface. Photoshop Elements included all the features that the license-free version previously had, apart from the classic tools.

Adobe Photoshop Elements 6 was released for the first time in
05a79cecff

Getting the message out about meeting and events.

Our long-term goal is to ensure that the county of Long Island is filled with responsible handgun owners. “What do I mean by responsible?” We will ensure that our citizens are trained in the safe handling of firearms and the skills to shoot accurately. We will reduce the crime associated with firearms, reduce the number of accidental shootings, decrease school shootings, etc. The second part of our long-term goal is to ensure the aforementioned while, at the same time, making sure that we are re-electing Sheriff Ohrbach and the tax-payer funded “Anti Violence” program the county has.

We will achieve our long-term goal by working in the cities of Riverhead, Northport, Hempstead, Brookhaven, and Yaphank.

We will achieve our goal through the following broad categories:

Sustaining Public Events

Holding many public events, including town meetings, organized by the NRA and our local clubs

Projects

We will run several projects in the county as projects. For example, we will run awareness campaigns during election season and other short term projects.

The Problem

People don’t realize that being a gun owner does not necessarily entitle them to some form of immunity. Sure you’re going to be safe when you follow the law, but you will still be in a situation where you can be hurt or killed by a criminal. The second you store your gun in your vehicle (we don’t recommend this!) you put yourself and your children in a situation that could cause serious harm.

Let’s face it, a lot of people do not know how to safely handle a gun, let alone how to shoot. Many people are just worried about other things and don’t want to be bothered to learn a basic skill that could protect their lives or the lives of others.

So we need you to get on board. Join with us! Stop being afraid of guns and learn to use them to your advantage. We’re not your enemy and you definitely don’t have to own one to be part of the solution.

If you feel this is a good idea and want to participate in making our community a more law-abiding and safe place, then join us!

The NRA

The NRA was founded in 1871 by former officers of the Civil War to protect the right of every American to own a firearm for sporting and recreational use. A non-profit organization for more

## What’s New In?

Ask HN: Running a small solo web dev shop – bayareanative
My partner and I have been working on an app (iOS and Android mobile web applications and a backend) that we hope to eventually turn into a small software company. We’re looking for feedback on what to do to make it successful. We have friends that have gotten involved in similar projects, but our idea seems so far removed from theirs. What are the best models for such things?
======
ScottWhigham
If you want a one-person shop then become a consultant. The “business” model
is very hard to do right (but the profits can be great). For your first few
projects, expect to fail. It will be painful, scary, and probably somewhat
expensive but it is a good educational process for you and will most likely be
a good learning experience for others. However, once you’ve made a lot of
money, many problems then become less painful and/or less expensive/more fun.
That’s the “secret” and it is a good one. And you get to keep all the money.
(Disclaimer: I’m not a consultant.)

Q:

3D plots: how to look at the dependence of the sum $d$

Given a function $f:\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $d \in \mathbb{N}$, the function $\sum_{i = 1}^{d} f(\vec{x}^i)$ is called a $d$-dimensional sum. Here, $\vec{x}^i$ denotes the $i$th vector in the $d$-dimensional vector space $\mathbb{R}^d$. I would like to look at the dependence of $d$ to the function $f$: Does it make sense to measure the complexity of $d$-dimensional sums?
For example, a $1$-dimensional sum $f(x)$ is a function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. Now, in this case, we only have to look at the value of $d$ which is related to $f(x)$. But how would I look at the dependence of $d$ to other functions? For example, what’s $f(x,y)$ when $x$ is fixed and $y$ is allowed